Aromie Lee, Presbyterian YIM mission trip participant with Sabeel, 2011

Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: “May they prosper who love you. Peace be within your walls, and security within your towers.” For the sake of my relatives and friends I will say, “Peace be within you.” For the sake of the house of the Lord our God, I will seek your good.
Psalm 122: 6–9

Image of arrow pointing down2019 Social Action Handbook

Christian Zionism – Implications for Peace and Justice Between the Jewish and Palestinian Peoples


The 134th General Assembly received the following recommendation (A&P 2008, p. 25):

Given that the World Council of Churches has designated this week [June 4-10, 2008] as a Week of Action for Peace in Palestine and Israel, and given that next year [2009] marks the 500th anniversary of John Calvin’s birth, that this Assembly repudiate any version of Christian Zionism that implies a two covenant theology, and that it affirm Calvin’s conviction (based on Paul) that, in the words of the Westminster Confession of Faith (VII, 6) “there are not two covenants of grace differing in substance, but one and the same and under various dispensations”.

A motion to refer was adopted which stated: “that the additional motion be referred to the Committee on International Affairs to consult with the Committee on Church Doctrine.”

The International Affairs Committee decided to respond to this recommendation once the General Assembly had received and considered the report from the Committee on Church Doctrine on Supercessionism. That committee submitted this report to the 136th General Assembly (A&P 2010, p. 290-355).

In its report the Committee on Church Doctrine noted that the Reformed tradition has always affirmed a single covenant of grace, not two separate and parallel covenants, one for the Jew, one for the Gentile, the so-called “two covenant theory…” (A&P 2010, p. 292).

Christian Zionism is a complex and multifaceted approach to theology and biblical interpretation. It is grounded in beliefs which consider the State of Israel to be divinely ordained and scripturally determined with a central role in ushering in the end of history. The International Affairs Committee is concerned about the implications of Christian Zionism on building and achieving peace with justice between Israel and Palestine.

Following the direction of the 134th General Assembly, a working group of the International Affairs Committee met with a working group of the Committee on Church Doctrine in November 2011, and had a fruitful discussion. The contribution drafted by the working group from the Church Doctrine Committee is reflected in the following section.

What Is Christian Zionism?

Christian Zionism, like most theological labels, has a variety of forms and emphases. In general the following summary is true of all shapes of beliefs gathered under the rubric of Christian Zionism. Christian Zionists hold to a view of history called dispensational pre-millennialism. This view separates history into different ages or dispensations in which different divine covenants are in effect. It also emphasizes that Christ will return prior to the millennium (1,000 years) as mentioned in Revelation 20, after which history will come to a close with a cataclysmic cosmic battle often called Armageddon.

At the heart of Christian Zionism is the belief that the modern State of Israel is divinely ordained and scripturally determined to have a central role in ushering in the end of history. The pre-condition of Christ’s return is that Jews (who have been chosen to do God’s work) must return to Palestine in fulfillment of biblical prophecies. They must establish their state in the whole of Eretz Yisrael (the land of Israel), including Jerusalem, which has been given by God to Jews exclusively as an eternal inheritance. The Jewish temple must be rebuilt in order to usher in the second coming of Christ.

Accordingly, since Christian Zionists believe that the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and the extension of Israel’s boundaries in 1967 are a divine fulfillment of promises to the patriarchs and a precursor to the immediate second coming of Christ, they endeavour to actively participate in bringing what they believe are God’s plans to completion by supporting the extension of Israel’s boundaries and settlements. They also encourage people to reject any peace process between Israel and Palestinians and the establishment of a Palestinian state because they believe these actions would be contrary to God’s will. In this light, all aspirations of the Palestinian people to their own country in parts of the “Holy Land” must be rejected. Christian Zionists also tend to ignore the presence and undervalue the significance of Christian Palestinians.

The working groups of the Committee on Church Doctrine and the International Affairs Committee agreed that this interpretation is at variance with the teaching of Scripture concerning both the general resurrection and judgment. In Reformed theology as expressed in the subordinate standards of The Presbyterian Church in Canada, the Westminster Confession of Faith and Living Faith, the kingdom of God is not primarily an earthly reign bounded by time, race or geography but is Good News centred in the person and work of Jesus Christ and is directed to all people everywhere. Reformed Christians generally believe that the 1,000 years mentioned in Revelation 20 are symbolic. Furthermore, the events related to and the time of Christ’s return, are the sole purview of God. The day of Jesus’ return is unknown to us and cannot be influenced through human effort. In the meantime, efforts among all peoples to express love, peace and justice in the world are the clear mandate of those who would follow Jesus faithfully.

Nevertheless, many Christians, especially in the United States, accept the premises of Christian Zionism and believe that the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and Israel’s capture of East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza in 1967 as a fulfillment of prophecy. In recent decades, Christian Zionists have supported the settler movement and its Jewish theological supporters, both in Israel and the West as the working out of the Divine Plan, leading to the Second Coming. They play a significant role in influencing public opinion and, certainly in the United States, government policy towards Israel.

Given the implications Christian Zionism has for Palestinians, it is important to hear what leaders in the Palestinian Christian community have said about Christian Zionism and what this means for peace with justice. This is in keeping with the longstanding practice of the International Affairs Committee of listening to church partners on the ground.

The Voice of Palestinian Christians

The Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism was released on August 22, 2006. The following points are taken from the Declaration. For the full statement, see Jerusalem Testament: Palestinian Christians Speak, Melanie A. May, 1988-2008, p. 123-24.1

  • Christian Zionism is a modern theological and political movement that embraces the most extreme ideological positions of Zionism, thereby becoming detrimental to a just peace within Palestine and Israel.
  • The Christian Zionist program provides a worldview where the gospel is identified with the ideology of empire, colonialism and militarism. In its extreme form, it places an emphasis on apocalyptic events leading to the end of history rather than living Christ’s love and justice today.
  • We categorically reject Christian Zionist doctrines as false teaching that corrupt the biblical message of love, justice and reconciliation.
  • We affirm that all people are created in the image of God. In turn they are called to honour the dignity of every human being and to respect their inalienable rights.
  • We are committed to non-violent resistance as the most effective means to end the illegal occupation in order to attain a just and lasting peace.
  • The establishment of the illegal settlements and the construction of the Separation Wall on confiscated Palestinian land undermine the viability of a Palestinian state as well as peace and security in the entire region.
  • We call upon Christians in churches on every continent to pray for the Palestinian and Israeli people, both of whom are suffering as victims of occupation and militarism.
  • We affirm that Israelis and Palestinians are capable of living together within peace, justice and security.

The Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism concludes with the following passage from scripture: God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting men’s sins against them. And he has committed to us the message of reconciliation (2 Corinthians 5:19).

The Declaration was signed by:

  • Patriarch Michael Sabbah, Latin Patriarchate, Jerusalem;
  • Archbishop Swerios Malki Mourad, Syrian Orthodox Patriachate, Jerusalem;
  • Bishop Riah Abu El-Assal, Episcopal Church of Jerusalem and the Middle East; and
  • Bishop Munib Younan, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Jordan and the Holy Land.

Statements of General Assembly Concerning Israel and Palestine

While The Presbyterian Church in Canada has not commented on Christian Zionism in the past, the church has expressed its clear support for a peace settlement based on the “two state solution” with the establishment of a sovereign Palestinian state.

The 109th General Assembly and the 116th General Assembly affirmed support for United Nations Security Council resolutions, particularly Resolutions 242 and 338 (A&P 1983, p. 374 and A&P 1990, p. 395-400, 62-63). Resolution 242 calls for:

  1. The withdrawal of Israel from the territory occupied since 1967 and the recognition by all states in the region of Israel’s right to exist;
  2. The right of all states, including Israel and its Arab neighbours, to live in peace with secure and recognized borders; and
  3. The right of the Palestinians to self-determination, including the right to establish their own sovereign state.

Resolution 338 was passed by the United Nations Security Council during the 1973 conflict and called for an immediate ceasefire, the implementation of Security Council Resolution 242 and negotiations to bring about a just and sustainable peace in the Middle East.

Withdrawing from the Occupied Territories means an end to Israeli settlements in the West Bank, all of which must be disposed of or dealt with, within a negotiated settlement. An arrangement must be found so that Jerusalem can be shared by the two peoples and three faiths for which it is a holy city.

Then there is the question of 5 million Palestinian refugees – that is those Palestinian refugees who are eligible for United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) services. One-third of the registered Palestine refugees, more than 1.4 million, live in 58 recognised refugee camps in Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. The future of Palestinian refugees needs to be considered in a way that fairly addresses the concerns of both Israelis and Palestinians.

In Living Faith (8.4.3, 8.5.3), we are reminded of our responsibilities as Christians to marginalized and vulnerable people:

Justice involves protecting the rights of others.
It protests against everything that destroys human dignity…
We affirm that God is at work when people are
ashamed of the inhumanity of war
and work for peace with justice.


We rarely hear the voices of courageous Israeli Jews and Palestinians (Christian and Muslim) deeply committed to peace with justice and two states living side by side in peace. These prophetic voices are marginalized in this drama. They strive to maintain a hopeful prophetic presence when there seems to be so little hope. These are voices that need to be heard.

Regrettably, Christian Zionist organizations have not demonstrated a commitment to supporting and working for peace with justice between Israelis and Palestinians. The present and future consequences of the policies advocated by Christian Zionist organizations are potentially disastrous, not only for Palestinians but also for the Jewish population of Israel itself. The only solution to this conflict that serves the long term interests of both peoples is an honourable peace, a peace that provides security and justice for both peoples.

Recommendation No. 9 (adopted, p. 35)

That with an acknowledgement of the complexity of issues faced by the people of the Middle East and, in particular, by the people of Israel and the Palestinian territories, we, the 138th General Assembly affirm the right of the State of Israel and the people of Palestine to exist in peace and security while we reject Christian Zionism as a doctrinal stance inconsistent with Reformed doctrine and its emphasis on one covenant of grace for all peoples, and that we acknowledge the message of Palestinian sisters and brothers in Christ that Christian Zionism poses a significant obstacle to a just peace between Israelis and Palestinians.


Aldrovandi, Carlo. “Theo-Politics in the Holy Land: Christian Zionism and Jewish Religious Zionism.” Religious Compass. 5.4 ( 2011). p. 114-28.

Burge, Gary M. Jesus and the Land: The New Testament Challenge to “Holy Land” Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2010.

Chacour, Elias with Alain Michel. Faith Beyond Despair: Building Hope in the Holy Land. Norwich, UK: Canterbury Press, 2008. Elias Chacour is the Melkite Catholic Archbishop of Akka, Haifa, Nazareth and all of Galilee. He was the recipient of the Cutting Edge of Mission—E. H. Johnson Award presented at the 135th General Assembly (2009).

Chapman, Colin. “Premillennial Theology, Christian Zionism, and Christian Mission.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research. 33. 3. July 2009. p. 137-144.

Gushee, David P. and Stassen, Glen H. “An Open Letter to America’s Christian Zionists,” September 19, 2011. The Just Peacemaking Initiative website is hosted by Fuller Theological Seminary.

May, Melanie A. Jerusalem Testament: Palestinian Christians Speak, 1988-2088. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2010.

Sizer, Stephen. Christian Zionism: Road Map to Armageddon. Leichester: Inter-Varsity Press, 2004.

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees.

Endnotes for Christian Zionism – Implications for Peace and Justice Between the Jewish and Palestinian Peoples

1. May, Melanie A. Jerusalem Testament: Palestinian Christians Speak, 1988-2088. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2010, p.123-124.

The 138th General Assembly (2011) adopted a statement rejecting Christian Zionism.

A number of Canadian companies invest in Israel. The focus of this section is companies in the defense or communications and security sectors that make products which may be used in conflict situations and where human rights may be violated. In its 2009 report to the General Assembly, the International Affairs Committee compiled information from other denominations (such as The Presbyterian Church (USA) and the New England Conference of the United Methodist Church) that are involved in dialogues with corporations regarding their economic activities in Israel, and from ecumenical partner organizations with expertise in peace and human security issues (such as Project Ploughshares). The list included 20 companies that were involved in defence related activities or in communications technologies. Based on information published since 2009, that list has been updated. It includes Canadian and American corporations (or companies with Canadian or American subsidiaries). There are 17 companies: Pratt & Whitney Canada; Northrop Grumman, Presagis, Raytheon, Alliant Techsystems, Inc., United Technologies, Boeing, Motorola, General Dynamics, Caterpillar, General Electric, MacDonald Dettwiler & Associates, ITT Corporation, L-3 Communications, Elbit Systems LTD (Israel), Subsidiary: Elbit Systems of America, Lockheed Martin, Terex Corporation.

Presbyterians may wish to find out if they own shares in any of these companies and write to them requesting information about company policies to ensure that their products are not used in situations where human rights may be violated.

The Presbyterian Church in Canada has shares in the US parent companies General Electric (GE) and Caterpillar.

Source: A&P 2013, pp. 283-4.

The Presbyterian Church in Canada does not support general boycotts or sanctions against Israel.

Consumer Information

Image of arrow pointing downFair Trade Products from the Holy Land

Settlement Products Available in Canada

  • Israel has established a system of elaborate incentives to attract industry to the settlements including tax deductions, low rent, and lax enforcement of environmental and labour protection laws. These industries provide some employment for Palestinians but Palestinian workers are still subject to the harsh vetting and permit regimes of Shabak (Internal security services). The following is an incomplete list of products from the settlements that are available in Canada. This information is provided for Presbyterians who wish to know more about products from the settlements and available on the Canadian market.
  • Ahava beauty products
    Ahava manufactures cosmetic products such as skin creams using minerals from the Dead Sea. The company factory is located in the Mitzpe Shalem settlement and is partially owned by this settlement and Kalia settlement (Who Profits? 2012). Ahava exports their products under the label “Product of Israel”. These products are available at retail outlets such as The Bay and Sears.
  • Keter Plastic
    Keter Plastic products are used to make toolboxes, outdoor patio furniture, storage sheds, storage bins, bathroom products, planters, and many other plastic products. Keter Plastic has two manufacturing plants in the settlements, one in the Barkan Industrial Zone and a second in the settlement of Oranit (Who Profits? 2010). These products are available at Canadian Tire, Home Depot and other major retailers.
  • Wineries
    The Tishbi, Binyamina, Teperberg 1870, and Barkan Israeli wineries have vineyards or source grapes from vineyards in Israeli settlements for some of their wines. These products are available in many provincial liquor stores (Who Profits? 2011)

Source: Who Profits?

Visiting Israel and Palestine

The Holy Land is not only the birthplace of our faith but the current home of some of the most ancient Christian communities in the world. Hear the yearning expressed in the words of  Elias Chacour, Archbishop of the Melkite Catholic Church for Akko, Haifa, Nazareth and all Galilee and recipient of the Cutting Edge of Mission—E. H. Johnson Award in 2009:

You Westerners have been coming to the Holy Land for centuries to visit the shrines, the dead stones. But you do not see the living stones – the human beings who live and struggle before your eyes. I say ‘Wake up!’ What matters are the living stones!”

If you are planning a visit to the Holy Land consider:

Suggested Reading

“Economic Advocacy Measures: Options for KAIROS Members for the Promotion of Peace in Palestine and Israel,” KAIROS: Canadian Ecumenical Justice Initiatives, January 7, 2008,

“The Cradle of Our Faith: The Enduring Witness of the Christians of the Middle East,” Louisville: The Presbyterian Church (USA), 2008.

International Affairs Committee Report, 134th General Assembly, A&P 2008, p. 273-81.

Tikkun, May/June 2008 edition, Tikkun (Hebrew for healing) is a bi-monthly magazine dedicated to healing and transforming the world. Its editor is Rabbi Michael Lerner.

Weaver, Sonia, “What is Palestine-Israel? Answers to Common Questions,” Mennonite Central Committee, Waterloo: Herald Press, 2007.

Organization Websites

Amnesty International

B’Tselem: The Israeli Information Centre for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories,

Bat Shalom,

Haaretz, a daily Israeli newspaper,

International Committee of the Red Cross,

Jerusalem Centre for Women,

Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Centre,