Truth and Reconciliation Commission Calls to Action

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Education for Reconciliation

KAIROS is continuing to collect petitions to support Call to Action #62 which calls for the residential school legacy, treaties and past and present Indigenous contributions to this country to be a mandatory part of the curriculum in each province and territory. Visit KAIROS’ website for more information and updates about the campaign.

Image of arrow pointing downTRC Call to Action 48 Statement.pdf

On March 30, 2016, eight churches and religious organizations jointly declared their commitment to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s (TRC) Call to Action #48 in a press conference on Parliament Hill. This call urges the faith community to implement the principles, norms and standards of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a framework for reconciliation. The Presbyterian Church in Canada will continue to consult with other denominations and consult with National Native Ministries and with Presbyterians involved in healing and reconciliation about how to live out Call to Action #48. Click here for more information and to read the ecumenical statement issued on March 30, 2016.

48. We call upon the church parties to the Settlement Agreement, and all other faith groups and interfaith social justice groups in Canada who have not already done so, to formally adopt and comply with the principles, norms, and standards of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a framework for reconciliation. This would include, but not be limited to, the following commitments:
i. Ensuring that their institutions, policies, programs, and practices comply with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
ii. Respecting Indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination in spiritual matters, including the right to practise, develop, and teach their own spiritual and religious traditions, customs, and ceremonies, consistent with Article 12:1 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
iii. Engaging in ongoing public dialogue and actions to support the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
iv. Issuing a statement no later than March 31, 2016, from all religious denominations and faith groups, as to how they will implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples became part of international law when it was adopted by a majority vote of the UN General Assembly on September 13, 2007. It took over 20 years to negotiate. Canada initially voted against the Declaration but on November 12, 2010, Canada issued a Statement of Support endorsing it.

The UN Declaration is the only human rights instrument created with the participation of rights holders (in this case Indigenous Peoples) themselves. Prominent Indigenous people in Canada were involved in drafting the Declaration.

The UN Declaration sets the minimum necessary threshold to meet international human rights standards. States are free to apply higher standards or stronger rights than those set out in the UN Declaration. It does not create new or special rights for Indigenous peoples but elaborates upon existing international human rights instruments and clarifies how those rights apply to Indigenous peoples given their “specific cultural, historical, social and economic circumstances.” (Understanding and Implementing the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: An Introductory Handbook, Indigenous Bar Association and the University of Manitoba, Faculty of Law, 2011).

Indigenous Peoples constitute about 5% of the world’s population. There are some 370 million Indigenous people in the world, belonging to 5,000 different groups, in 90 countries.

According to the 2011 Canadian National Household Survey, there was a total of 1,400,685 Indigenous or Aboriginal people in Canada, comprising 4.3% of the Canadian population. There are three Indigenous groups recognized in Canada’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms: First Nations (851,560), Métis (451,795) and Inuit (59,445).

Copies of the UN Declaration are available from Justice Ministries. An example of one the Articles, #8.1 in the Declaration, states Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right not to be subjected to forced assimilation or destruction of their culture.”

A healing and reconciliation seed fund grant supported a community initiative in response to Call to Action #48 by the Rev. Mark Tremblay and Knox Presbyterian Church in Calgary. Rev. Tremblay, through the Calgary Interfaith Council, organized a workshop to enable faith leaders and others to learn more about the UN Declaration and help them discern how the values and principles could be shared and implemented. “The Declaration invites us to reflect on the values we hold as God’s children, as human beings,” Tremblay said. “Reflecting on the Declaration provides an opportunity to become more aware of the effect of our ‘cultural arrogance’ and to consider ways in which reconciliation might be possible.”

The forum took place on Wednesday, January 20, 2016 and was hosted by the Beth Tzedec Synagogue in Calgary. The day was led by Elder Doreen Spence, a Cree Storyteller and Healer who has dedicated her life to advancing Indigenous rights in Canada, and a 2005 Nobel Peace nominee for her 1000 Women of Peace project. A sacred run through Europe to the doors of the United Nations in Geneva began the long 20-year journey, led by Elder Doreen Spence, of drafting and revising the document that would eventually become The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

Doreen Spence

“I am Doreen Spence and my sacred name is Bald Eagle Woman Who Leads. I am Cree, from Northern Alberta. I teach the traditional native teachings classes. I believe that’s critical information the average person does not have. That’s where it starts. If we can have more people taking those traditional native teaching classes, then we would be working towards the process of peace and reconciliation. It doesn’t just take the Indigenous people, it takes the non-Indigenous people to become a part of that process—not just talk about it and study it but to do it and get involved. At a local level there’s always organizations and volunteer work that can be done. Even though we’re only 2% of the population here in Calgary, we are over-represented in the youth and homeless living on the streets. It’s just incredible what we immune ourselves to, here in our own back yard. The colonial way way of looking at life is to look outside of yourself to other countries because it makes you feel better, you don’t have to look at what’s here at home. To clean up our own backyard first is critical. It’s like healing thy self before you can start healing somebody else. That’s basically the philosophy of the Indigenous, especially the Elders, the spiritual people.”

Watch Doreen tell her empowering story, https://vimeo.com/54259728. A Global Search for Justice. The Story of Doreen Spence.Doreen Spence Student Art

Repudiate the Doctrine of Discovery and terra nullius

Repudiate those concepts that have been used throughout history to justify sovereignty over Indigenous lands and peoples.

46. We call upon the parties to the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement to develop and sign a Covenant of Reconciliation that would identify principles for working collaboratively to advance reconciliation in Canadian society, and that would include, but not be limited to:
i. Reaffirmation of the parties’ commitment to reconciliation.
ii. Repudiation of concepts used to justify European sovereignty over Indigenous lands and peoples, such as the Doctrine of Discovery and terra nullius, and the reformation of laws, governance structures, and policies within their respective institutions that continue to rely on such concepts.
iii. Full adoption and implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as the framework for reconciliation.
iv. Support for the renewal or establishment of Treaty relationships based on principles of mutual recognition, mutual respect, and shared responsibility for maintaining those relationships into the future.
v. Enabling those excluded from the Settlement Agreement to sign onto the Covenant of Reconciliation.
vi. Enabling additional parties to sign onto the Covenant of Reconciliation.

49. We call upon all religious denominations and faith groups who have not already done so to repudiate concepts used to justify European sovereignty over Indigenous lands and peoples, such as the Doctrine of Discovery and terra nullius.

Indigenous Spirituality

Educate clergy, laity and candidates for ministry to respect in its own right, Indigenous Spirituality as ‘a valid form of worship equal to their own.’

48. We call upon the church parties to the Settlement Agreement, and all other faith groups and interfaith social justice groups in Canada who have not already done so, to formally adopt and comply with the principles, norms, and standards of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a framework for reconciliation. This would include, but not be limited to, the following commitments:
i. Ensuring that their institutions, policies, programs, and practices comply with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
ii. Respecting Indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination in spiritual matters, including the right to practise, develop, and teach their own spiritual and religious traditions, customs, and ceremonies, consistent with Article 12:1 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
iii. Engaging in ongoing public dialogue and actions to support the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
iv. Issuing a statement no later than March 31, 2016, from all religious denominations and faith groups, as to how they will implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

60. We call upon leaders of the church parties to the Settlement Agreement and all other faiths, in collaboration with Indigenous spiritual leaders, Survivors, schools of theology, seminaries, and other religious training centres, to develop and teach curriculum for all student clergy, and all clergy and staff who work in Aboriginal communities, on the need
to respect Indigenous spirituality in its own right, the history and legacy of residential schools and the roles of the church parties in that system, the history and legacy of religious conflict in Aboriginal families and communities, and the responsibility that churches have to mitigate such conflicts and prevent spiritual violence.

61. We call upon church parties to the Settlement Agreement, in collaboration with Survivors and representatives of Aboriginal organizations, to establish permanent funding to Aboriginal people for:
i. Community-controlled healing and reconciliation projects.
ii. Community-controlled culture- and language-revitalization projects.
iii. Community-controlled education and relationship-building projects.
iv. Regional dialogues for Indigenous spiritual leaders and youth to discuss Indigenous spirituality, self-determination, and reconciliation.

Ongoing Education

Provide to our members ongoing education on the Church’s role in colonization and Indian Residential Schools.

59. We call upon church parties to the Settlement Agreement to develop ongoing education strategies to ensure that their respective congregations learn about their church’s role in colonization, the history and legacy of residential schools, and why apologies to former residential school students, their families, and communities were necessary.

Covenant of Reconciliation

Develop and sign a Covenant of Reconciliation with other parties to the Settlement Agreement.

46. We call upon the parties to the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement to develop and sign a Covenant of Reconciliation that would identify principles for working collaboratively to advance reconciliation in Canadian society, and that would include, but not be limited to:
i. Reaffirmation of the parties’ commitment to reconciliation.
ii. Repudiation of concepts used to justify European sovereignty over Indigenous lands and peoples, such as the Doctrine of Discovery and terra nullius, and the reformation of laws, governance structures, and policies within their respective institutions that continue to rely on such concepts.
iii. Full adoption and implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as the framework for reconciliation.
iv. Support for the renewal or establishment of Treaty relationships based on principles of mutual recognition, mutual respect, and shared responsibility for maintaining those relationships into the future.
v. Enabling those excluded from the Settlement Agreement to sign onto the Covenant of Reconciliation.
vi. Enabling additional parties to sign onto the Covenant of Reconciliation.

Permanent Funding

Provide permanent ongoing funding for projects that promote Indigenous healing and reconciliation, culture, language and spirituality.

61. We call upon church parties to the Settlement Agreement, in collaboration with Survivors and representatives of Aboriginal organizations, to establish permanent funding to Aboriginal people for:
i. Community-controlled healing and reconciliation projects.
ii. Community-controlled culture- and language-revitalization projects.
iii. Community-controlled education and relationship-building projects.
iv. Regional dialogues for Indigenous spiritual leaders and youth to discuss Indigenous spirituality, self-determination, and reconciliation.

Maintain Cemeteries

With Aboriginal groups and the Federal Government, support initiatives to provide a registry of children buried at schools, notify families, and properly maintain cemeteries.

73. We call upon the federal government to work with churches, Aboriginal communities, and former residential school students to establish and maintain
an online registry of residential school cemeteries, including, where possible, plot maps showing the location of deceased residential school children.

74. We call upon the federal government to work with the churches and Aboriginal community leaders to inform the families of children who died at residential schools
of the child’s burial location, and to respond to families’ wishes for appropriate commemoration ceremonies and markers, and reburial in home communities where
requested.

75. We call upon the federal government to work with provincial, territorial, and municipal governments, churches, Aboriginal communities, former residential
school students, and current landowners to develop and implement strategies and procedures for the ongoing identification, documentation, maintenance,
commemoration, and protection of residential school cemeteries or other sites at which residential school children were buried. This is to include the provision of appropriate memorial ceremonies and commemorative markers to honour the deceased children.


TRC Final Report Cover

 

 Truth and Reconciliation Resources and Archives

We are on a journey toward reconciliation. Justice Ministries commends KAIROS’ Strength for Climbing: Steps on the Journey of Reconciliation to all churches as a resource for steps that faithfully respond to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s 94 Calls to Action (to churches, governments and all Canadians).
Strength for Climbing provides concrete suggestions for individual and group learning activities pointing to why reconciliation is essential and suggested activities for how we can continue this journey together with Indigenous people.

There are book and movie recommendations. Ideas for connecting with First Nations communities and Friendship Centres are suggested. What can we do? Here are some ideas:

1. Identify the traditional territory your church is on. Talk to session about acknowledging the traditional territory in your church’s bulletin.
2. Read Thomas King’s The Inconvenient Indian.
3. Do the Blanket Exercise.
4. Support “Sisters in Spirit” as they call for a national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls.

Image of arrow pointing downStrength for Climbing: Steps on the Journey of Reconciliation
For free printed copies, contact Katharine Masterton, Justice Ministries, healing [at] presbyterian [dot] ca | 1-800-619-7301 ext. 250

The seventh and final national Truth and Reconciliation Commission event was held in Edmonton, AB in March 2014.

The moderator offered a gesture of reconciliation at the Edmonton event. Learn more about how the final TRC event provided an opportunity to help survivors and their families move forward toward freedom from pain and suffering.

The national events provide a chance to celebrate diversity and honour those touched by residential schools. They engage the public and provide education about the history of the residential schools system, the experience of former students and their families, and the ongoing legacies.

View an eight-minute video summarizing the TRC event in Edmonton

Written by Joan Smith, former President of the Women’s Missionary Society, Toronto, ON

For the past year, two ideas have been going around and around in my mind: “take the Indian out of the child” and “for the child taken, for the parent left behind.” The first was Canadian policy, underscoring the purpose of the residential schools system. The second is the theme for the Truth & Reconciliation Commission (TRC) national events being held across Canada. By establishing a national memory about residential schools, the TRC is ensuring that no one can say “this never happened.”

Little did I know how attending two national TRC events would affect my life. I was one who would wonder, sometimes out loud, “why don’t Aboriginal peoples just let things go and get on with their lives?” Why did something that happened some generations ago have such a negative effect on their way of life?

I first attended a TRC national event in Saskatoon SK in June 2012 as a member of the Women’s Missionary Society’s delegation. We were there to hear the experiences and stories of survivors of residential schools and their families. After listening to these heart-rending stories, my attitude changed. I realized that we were there to grieve the past with them, ask for forgiveness and break down barriers. We often listened through tears, along with the survivors and others who attended. It was difficult to hear about the “take the Indian out of the child” policy. It was difficult to hear how they were referred to as savages and that their way of life was not considered human. It was difficult to hear how the children felt abandoned, and about the physical, emotional, spiritual and sexual abuse suffered by many. At the Saskatoon and Montreal TRC (which I also attended) events, we witnessed extraordinary courage by the survivors and their families as they spoke publicly about what they had suffered.

Many survivors spoke about not knowing how to love their own families after being deprived of love themselves. Some survivors said that if it had not been for supportive partners and families in later years, they would not have survived.

That some survivors continued in a Christian faith, after being told that their experiences at residential school were “God’s way,” amazes me. Many were told that the God they believed in was not the true God. It was amazing how some of them, in their statements before the Commission, expressed their love for God and how they were able to continue living with God’s help.

Attending the TRC national events changed my life and  perspective while I witnessed the simple truths of the Sacred Fire and the resilience of survivors who carry on.

View the photo gallery from the TRC national event in Edmonton.
View the photo gallery from the TRC national event in Saskatoon.

View the Presbyterian Archives online photo exhibit from the Indian Residential Schools

Reading List

Clearing the Plains by James Daschuk (University of Regina Press/2013)
The Inconvenient Indian by Thomas King (Doubleday Canada/2012)
The Orenda by Joseph Boyden (Hamish Hamilton CA/2013)
Indian School Road
, Chris Bergman (Nimbus Publishing Ltd./2014)
The Back Of The Turtle, Thomas King (Harper Collins Publishers Ltd./ 2014)
Up Ghost River, Edwin Metatawabin (Alfred A Knopf Canada/2014)
The Comeback, John Ralston Saul (Penguin Group/2014)
Prison of Grass, Howard Adams (Fifth House Publishers/1989)
Breaking the Silence, AFN (Assembly of First Nations/1994)
Reconstructing Native Womanhood, Kirk Anderson (Second Story Press/2000)
…And the Last Shall Be First, Murray Angus (NC Press/1991)
Native Poetry in Canada: A Contemporary Anthology, Armstrong and Grauer (Broadview Press/2001)
Whispering in Shadows, Jeanette Armstrong (Theytus Books/2000)
Out of Muskoka, James K. Bartlemann (Penumbra Press/2002)
First Nations Education in Canada, Battiste & Barman (UBC Press/1995)
Nation to Nation, Bird, Land, MacAdam (Irwin Publishing/2001)
Healing Spiritual Abuse, Ken Blue (Inter Varsity Press/1993)
Three Day Road, Joseph Boyden (Penguin Canada/2005)
Through Black Spruce, Joseph Boyden (Penguin Canada/2008)
Louis Riel & Gabriel Dumont, Joseph Boyden (Penguin Canada/2010)
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Dee Brown (Holt, Rinehart and Winston/1970)
Indian Legends of Vancouver Island, Alfred Carmichael (The Musson Book Company/1922)
The Circle Game, Chrisjohn and Young (Theytus Books/1995)
Stolen From Our Embrace, Crey & Fournier (Douglas and McIntyre/1998)
Clearing The Plains, James Daschuk (University of Regina Press/2013)
Waterlily, Ella Cara Deloria (Bison Books/1990)
God is Red, Vince Deloria (Fulcrum Publishing/1994)
Canada’s First Nations, O.P. Dickason (Oxford University Press/1997)
Collection of Life Stories of the survivors of the Quebec Residential School System, Marie-Therese Dumont (First Nations of Quebec and Labrador Health and Social Services)
Nation to Nation, Bird Engelstad (Anansi/1992)
We Are All Treaty People, Roger Epp (University of Alberta Press/2008)
Broken Circle: The Dark Legacy of Indian Residential Schools, Theodore Fontaine (Heritage House Publishing/2010)
Aboriginal Spirituality & Biblical Theology, John W. Friesen (Detseling Enterprises/2000)
Circleworks: Transforming Eurocentric Consciousness, Fyre Jean Graveline (Fernwood Publishing/1998)
Finding My Talk, Agnes Grant (Fifth House Books/2004)
Resistance and Renewal, Celia Haig-Brown (Arsenal Press/1998)
Native Peoples of the Northwest, Halliday and Chehak (Sasquatch Books/1996)
Motorcycles and Sweetgrass, Drew Hayden-Taylor (Knopf Canada/2010)
The Night Wanderer, Drew Hayden-Taylor (Annick Pulp Press/ 2007)
Buffalo Shout, Salmon Cry: Conversations on Creation, Land Justice and Life Together, Steve (ed) Heinrichs (Herald Press/ 2013)
The No-Nonsense Guide to Indigenous People, Lotte Hughes (New Internationalist Publications/2003)
Voices from the Sound, Margaret Horsfield (Salal Books/ 2009)
Dream Catchers, Philip Jenkins (Oxford/ 2004)
Flint and Feather, E. Pauline Johnson (Hayes.Barton/1912)
The Moccasin Maker, E. Pauline Johnson (Kessinger Publishing/2010 Reprint)
Indian School Days, Basil H. Johnston (University of Oklahoma Press/1989)
A Stranger at Home, Christy Jordan-Fenton (Annick Press/2011)
Fatty Legs, Christy Jordan-Fenton (Annick Press/2010)
In Peace and Friendship, KAIROS (KAIROS/Second Edition)
Colonizing Bodies, Mary-Ellen Kelm (UBC Press/1999)
A Native American THEOLOGY, Clara Sue Kidwell; Homer Noley and Tinker “Tink” (Orbis Books/2001)
The Inconvenient Indian: A Curious Account of Native People in N.A., Thomas King (Doubleday Canada 2012)
The truth about stories: a native narrative, Thomas King (Dead Dog Café Productions/2003)
Truth and Bright Water, Thomas King (Grove Press/2001)
The Red Indians, Peter Kulchyski (Arbeiter Ring Publishing/2007)
Last Standing Woman, Winona LaDuke (Voyageur Press/1997)
When the Other is Me: Native Resistance Discourse 1850-1990, Emma LaRocque (University of Manitoba Press/2010)
Tecumseh and Brock: The War of 1812, James Laxer (House of Anansi Press Inc./2012)
Goodbye Buffalo Bay, Larry Loyie (Theytus Books/2012)
Mamny Moons Ago, Fred McCue (iUniverse /2008)
Hanaway, Fred Metatawabin (Trafford Publishing/2004)
First Peoples in Canada, McMillan and Yellowhorn (Douglas & McIntyre Publishers/1988)
Citizens Plus, J.R. Miller (University of Toronto Press/2009)
Compact, Contract, Covenant, J.R. Miller (University of Toronto Press/2003)
A History of Native Residential Schools, J.R. Miller (University of Toronto Press/1996)
A National Crime, J.S. Milloy (University of Manitoba Press/1999)
Saik’uz Woman (Stoney Creek Woman), Bridget Moran (Arsenal Pulp Press/1998)
The Treaties of Canada with the Indians, Alexander Morris (Bedfords,Clarke & Company/1880)
Come Walk With Me: A Memoir, Beatrice Mosionier (High Water Press/2009)
In Search of April Raintree, Beatrice Mosionier (Portage and Main Press/1999)
The First Nations of British Columbia, Robert Muckle (UBC Press/2007)
Christ is a Native American, Achiel Peelman (Orbis Books/1995)
An Illustrated History of Canada’s Native People, Arthur J. Ray (McGill-Queen’s University Press)
Aboriginal People in Canada, Kevin (ed) Reed (Pearson/2011)
Unsettling The Settler Within, Paulette Regan (UBC Press /2010)
Speaking My Truth: Reflections on Reconciliation and Residential Schools, Shelagh Rogers et al (Aboriginal Healing Foundation/2012)
From the Iron House: Imprisonment in First Nations Writing, Deena Rymhs (Wilfrid Laurier University Press/2008)
Feasting with Mine Enemy, Rosman and Rubel (Waveland Printing/1986)
Return To The Teachings, Rupert Ross (Penguin/2006)
A Fair Country, John Ralston Saul (Penguin Canada/2009)
A Geography of Blood: Unearthing Memory From a Prairie Landscape, Candace Savage (Greystone Books/2012)
The Legacy of School For Aboriginal People, Schissel & Wotherspoon (Oxford University Press/2003)
Dancing On Our Turtle’s Back, Leanne Simpson (Arbeiter Ring Publishing)
Manitowapow, Sinclair & Cariou (Highwater Press/2011)
Sacred Feathers, Donald Smith (University of Toronto Press/1995 (reprint))
Anishnaabe World, Roger Spielman (Your Scrivener Press/ 2009)
Full Circle: Canada’s First Nations, Steckley and Cummins (Prentice Hall/2001)
Potlatch People: Indian Lives and Legends of British Columbia, Mildred Valley Thornton (Hancock House Publishers/2000)
They Came for the Children, TRC (The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada)
One Church, Many Tribes, Richard Twiss (Regal Books/2000)
Indian Horse, Richard Wagamese (Douglas and McIntyre/2012)
Keeper’n Me, Richard Wagamese (Anchor Canada/2006)
One Native Life, Richard Wagamese (Douglas and McIntyre/2008)
The Next Sure Thing, Richard Wagamese (Raven Books/2011)
Native American Religious Identity, Jace Weaver (Orbis Books/1998)
Wawahte, Robert B. Wells (Trafford Publishing /2012)
Big Bear (Extraordinary Canadians), Rudy Wiebe (Penguin Canada/2008)
Stolen Continents: The “New World” Through Indian Eyes, Ronald Wright (Houghton Mifflin/1992)
Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry, Widdison & Howard (McGill/Queens University Press /2008)
The Gift is in the Making: Anishinaabeg Stories, Leanne Simpson (Highwater Press/2013)

Resources on Indian Residential Schools and Truth and Reconciliation:

Videos and Documentaries:

  • Gently Whispering the Circle Back. The story of the emergence of Blue Quill College in St. Paul as a place of healing and reconciliation. Contact Beth Wishart MacKenzie (producer) to arrange a screening or obtain a copy.
  • A 17-minute video by the Mennonite Church as to the importance of attending a TRC hearing
  • Watch a five-minute video by the Mennonite Church as to what are the key elements at a TRC hearing:

Websites:

  • Project of Heart website full of resources for all ages to learn about residential school history using a variety of materials and strategies.
  • United Church of Canada website is full of information and resources to use within congregations.
  • The Children Remembered is a website that has all the photos and history summaries of United Church operated residential schools.
  • The Aboriginal Healing Foundation website is where you can order the book, Speaking My Truth, for free.
  • The website of KAIROS Canada has resources and workshop support for indigenous rights. Coordinating of and information sharing on events across Canada.

Other Resources

Letter to the Government: Bernard Valcourt, Housing in First Nations Communities, January 2015

Outline for a Workshop: for commemorating the anniversary of the confession to Aboriginal peoples.

Summary of Ideas: Commissioners of the 139th General Assembly (2013) were asked to suggest ideas to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Confession in 2014.